From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a type of nuclear fission reactor where the primary coolant is a molten salt mixture, which can run at high temperatures (for higher thermodynamic efficiency) while staying at low vapor pressure for reduced mechanical stress and increased safety, and is less reactive than molten sodium coolant. The nuclear fuel may be solid fuel rods, or dissolved in the coolant itself, which eliminates fuel fabrication, simplifies reactor structure, equalizes burnup, and allows online reprocessing. MSR is also known as a liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR), and pronounced “lifter”. The improved neutron economy makes neutrons available so that the thorium-232 can breed into uranium-233. Thus, the compact core makes the molten salt design particularly suitable for the thorium fuel cycle.
By Gonzalo Lira :
“Homeowners can only be foreclosed and evicted from their homes by the person or institution who actually has the loan paper—only the note-holder has legal standing to ask a court to foreclose and evict. Not the mortgage, the note, which is the actual IOU that people sign, promising to pay back the mortgage loan
“Before mortgage-backed securities, most mortgage loans were issued by the local savings & loan. So the note usually didn’t go anywhere: it stayed in the offices of the S&L down the street.
“But once mortgage loan securitization happened, things got sloppy—they got sloppy by very nature of mortgage-backed securities.
“The whole purpose of MBSs was for different investors to have their different risk appetites satiated with different bonds. Some bond customers wanted super-safe bonds with low returns, some others wanted riskier bonds with correspondingly higher rates of return.
“Therefore, as everyone knows, the loans were ‘bundled’ into REMICs (Real-Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits, a special vehicle designed to hold the loans for tax purposes), and then “sliced & diced”—split up and put into tranches, according to their likelihood of default, their interest rates, and other characteristics.
“This slicing and dicing created ‘senior tranches,’ where the loans would likely be paid in full, if the past history of mortgage loan statistics was to be believed. And it also created‘junior tranches,’ where the loans might well default, again according to past history and statistics. (A whole range of tranches was created, of course, but for the purposes of this discussion we can ignore all those countless other variations.) (more…)
L-arginine is widely touted and promoted as a supplement for enhancing blood flow and nutrient delivery. So I got curious whether its just about money or true. That is what I found :
Our body converts L-arginine into Nitric oxide (NO). NO is a ubiquitous mediator that is formed by a family of enzymes named NO synthases. In the brain, NO acts as a neurotransmitter; in the immune system NO acts as a mediator of host defense; and in the cardiovascular system, NO mediates the protective effects of the intact endothelium (inhibits adhesion of blood platelets), acting as a vasodilator.
Scientific studies have shown that NO significantly reduces blood pressure levels. NO also enhances health in a number of other ways. It improves immune function, stimulates the release of human growth hormone (HGH), promotes healthy sexual function (since it stimulates production of an enzyme that leads to smooth muscle relaxation of the arteries), may boost energy levels, helps to build muscle, and may reduces adipose tissue body fat. However most studies I could find do not support the claims of the supplement industry regarding oral supplementation of L-arginine.
Arginine is the precursor for nitric oxide leading to the supposition that oral supplementation can serve as a potent nitric oxide stimulator. This position is also based on the findings that significant increases of blood serum arginine levels induce significant levels of vasodilation in healthy persons when fasting (12).
However, such blood levels of arginine require direct infusion as high oral doses generally are not tolerated. In fact, oral dosages as low as 10 grams per day have been associated with significant gastric distress (16).
A substantial body of research dating back to the 1990’s, demonstrates that oral feeding of arginine is ineffective for increasing nitric oxide production, as compared to intravenous infusion, which is largely impractical.
Efficacy and safety of oral l-arginine in acute myocardial infarction CONCLUSIONS: This study, which is the first attempt to use L-arginine in MI, showed that oral L-arginine supplementation was well tolerated. Beneficial nonsignificant trend was observed towards reduction of major clinical events.
CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial dysfunction was apparent in patients with heart failure despite rigorous vasoactive treatment. Oral administration with l-arginine was ineffective in influencing endothelial function in these patients.
Conclusions— In patients with PAD (peripheral arterial disease), long-term administration of L-arginine does not increase nitric oxide synthesis or improve vascular reactivity. Furthermore, the expected placebo effect observed in studies of functional capacity was attenuated in the L-arginine-treated group. As opposed to its short-term administration, long-term administration of L-arginine is not useful in patients with intermittent claudication and PAD.
Abstract: … Nonetheless, intravenous or dietary (oral) administration of relatively large doses of L-arginine has been shown to result in enhanced NO formation in subjects with impaired endothelial function at baseline. In several controlled clinical trials, long-term administration of L-arginine has been shown to improve the symptoms of cardiovascular disease. However, in other trials L-arginine was not beneficial, and in a recent study, the authors reported higher mortality of subjects receiving L-arginine than those receiving placebo.
The UK’s leading scientific body has been forced to rewrite its guide on climate change and admit that it is not known how much warmer the Earth will become. The Royal Society has updated its guide after 43 of its members complained that the previous version failed to take into account the opinion of climate change sceptics :
“The Royal Society has produced a new guide to the science of climate change. The guide summarises the current scientific evidence on climate change and its drivers, highlighting the areas where the science is well established, where there is still some debate, and where substantial uncertainties remain.”
download link for guide
One year ago it started to drain, my sinus, and I had tried a couple of cures. So I was very sceptical when a friend recommended Umckaloabo, but after taking 30 drops three times daily for two weeks my chronic sinusitis was gone !
The history :
In 1897, Englishman Charles Stevens contracted pulmonary tuberculosis and left for the warmer climate of South Africa. While there he met a native healer by the name of Mike Kijitse who gave him a traditional cure known as Umckaloabo. When Mr. Stevens returned to England, his doctor pronounced him cured.
How it works : Studies have suggested that Umckaloabo exhibits both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects. Immunomodulatory means it changes the immune system; in this case it would cause the immune system to attack the virus or bacteria cells. Antimicrobial is a substance that inhibits or kills bacteria, viruses and fungi. If in fact the root extract of the Pelargonium sidoides did cure Charles Stevens of pulmonary tuberculosis, that means that Umcka can cure a disease caused by a bacteria, since tuberculosis is caused by bacteria. Studies have shown that Umcka has antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and immune-boosting properties.
From the Zulu medicine to the European phytomedicine Umckaloabo
… but one must make sure the glasses block 99% of ultraviolet rays – both UV-A and UV-B rays
by Jenny Thompson
Director, Health Sciences Institute
Photokeratitis – that’s Excellent Reason Number One to wear sunglasses with proper UV protection.
Here’s Excellent Reason Number Two: Cataracts. More than 60% of blind South Africans went blind due to cataracts and I know you don’t want to join their ranks. The risk of cataracts increases with a family history of the condition, diabetes, smoking and long-term steroid use. But UV exposure ranks as one of the most serious risk factors.
Excellent Reason Number Three: Pterygium. When the cornea is damaged by sun exposure, scar tissue and blood vessels create an abnormal growth that can extend to the pupil and block vision. Severest pterygium cases require surgery.
Excellent Reason Number Four: Skin cancer. Sun exposure is the cause of basal cell carcinoma, one of the two most common cancers. The other is squamous cell. Both are treatable with minor surgery. But they’re unsightly and annoying, especially when they develop on eyelids.
Excellent Reason Number Five: Macular degeneration. As I’ve mentioned before, this is the most common cause of blindness in people 55 and over. If you live in a region that’s sunny year-round and don’t wear proper sunglasses, UV damage can reach the retina at the back of the eyeball. When damage occurs in the macula, at the centre of the retina, deterioration begins at the centre of the field of vision and slowly expands.
A Florida ophthalmologist told a local newspaper: “I’ve seen very expensive sunglasses that are not good ultraviolet absorbers and I’ve seen cheap sunglasses that were great ultraviolet absorbers.”
In addition to shopping for lenses that are reliable UV-absorbers, a wraparound frame does a much better job of filtering out UV than glasses with smaller frames and lenses.